We tend to live with concepts in our lives. I could be wrong, but since we do have certain viewpoints about everything around and about us, it becomes quite obvious, doesn’t it? And whenever we cannot decide as to what is what and why, we look for historical perspectives. We look for and purely believe in the historical beliefs and the philosophical approach of our great philosophers, don’t we? Well then, believing in philosophies and not looking into the people who actually brought the concepts and made us belief what we belief would be a little unfair.
So let’s discover some of the greatest philosophers of all time…
To the Arabs, Al-Farabi was well-known as the ‘Second Master’ (after Aristotle), and with good grounds. He was one of the greatest philosophers of the world. Especially for his originality, and spontaneity compared the many around him. He was not just a philosopher, logician and musician, but also a major political scientist. Although not much is for certain about his life, but as a philosopher and scientist, he gained immense expertise in a variety of branches of learning and is stated to have been an expert in numerous languages. He not only acquired mastery over languages but also knowledge and technology. He was known to be a great expert in the art and science of music and invented quite a few musical instruments, in addition to contributing to the knowledge of musical notes. It is believed and also reported that he was capable of playing instruments so well that he could make people laugh or weep at will. Such a command on music and interest in music could be seen in his works, especially his book captioned Kitab al-Musiqa. He contributed considerably to science, philosophy, logic, sociology, medicine, mathematics and music. Not just that but, he stood out as an Encyclopedic. His works, his books on psychology and metaphysics were largely based on his own research. He is to date respected as the Second Teacher in philosophy since centuries and his work, aimed at synthesis of philosophy and Sufism.
The one to have brought decisive developments in the western philosophical practice was the (in the long run) pervasive merging of the Greek philosophical ritual Saint Augustine. Augustine is one of the main figures through and by whom this merging was accomplished. Augustine made such significant contributions to the early and subsequent philosophy with an emphasis upon the belief and authority. His major account was his knowledge and illumination, with a prominence upon the importance and centrality of the strength of character, and his focus upon a new way of conceptualizing the prodigy of human history. The most conspicuous examples of his great works is Augustine’s Confessions, the undoubtedly most widely read works in medieval philosophy, for both philosophers and non-philosophers. His philosophical approach towards an individual is a body-soul composite. According to him, there is unevenness between soul and body. As a mystical body, the soul is greater than the body, and it is the prefecture of the soul to lead the body. He was on top of all the supporter of exactness and the guide of souls. His doctrinal procedures, the sway of which was ordained to last as long as the Church itself, were multiple.
He was an Italian Dominican priest, but an immensely influential philosopher and theologian. He was known as Doctor Angelicus. He was also known as the father of Thomism. He had had a great influence on Western thought, which is significant, and much of modern philosophy was perceived as a feedback in opposition to, or as conformity with his thoughts. His particular areas of interest were the ethics, natural law and political theory. Since he was a theologian and a Scholastic philosopher, he had much admiration for Aristotle. Thomas stands as a medium and modifier of Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism. He maintained that a human is a solitary substance matter. He believed the soul to be the form of body, which made a human being the composite of the two and that one actually comes from body and soul. His belief was that the goal of human existence was merger and everlasting association with God. Thus he clearly stated his position to be of the nature of his soul. He defined the soul to be the first principle of life.
He was a Spanish priest, philosopher and theologian. He was regarded as the greatest living philosopher and theologian; He was also one of the most important figures of the School of Salamanca movement. He was not only regarded amongst the greatest scholastics after Thomas Aquinas, but is to date considered the father of international law. And this of course, he enjoyed; the reputation of being the greatest metaphysician of his time. He wrote on a wide multiplicity of areas of interest, generating a superb sum of work. His writings include treatises on law, the relationship between church and state, metaphysics, and theology. His works were widely read in Europe during the seventeenth century and is still considered by some scholars to be his most profound work. His metaphysics was the comprehension of actual extract (and existence); it was typically apprehensive with real being rather than conceptual being. One of the main attractions was his metaphysical work. That was by a remarkable effort of his systematization, which is still considered to be the real history of medieval reflection which was a combination of the three schools available at that time: Thomism, Scotism and Nominalism. He was also a profound observer of Arabic or high medieval works.
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz holds an outstanding place in the history of mathematics and philosophy. He was a German philosopher and mathematician, but had written in multiple languages, primarily in Latin, French and German. He had urbanized infinitesimal calculus and Leibniz’s mathematical notation that has widely been used ever since it was presented. His works projected modern logic and analytic philosophy, but his philosophy also looked back to the scholastic tradition, in which assumptions were produced by pertaining grounds to first ideology. Leibniz’s philosophy was mostly noted for his optimism, e.g. his conclusion that our Universe is, in a restricted sense, the best possible one that God could have created. Thus, his philosophical writings mainly consisted of a massive amount of short pieces: periodical paragraphs, documents and many letters to many journalists. He had invented the Leibniz wheel, used the arithmometer and the first mass-produced mechanical calculator.